Absence of rotational activity detected using 2-dimensional phase mapping in the corresponding 3-dimensional phase maps in human persistent atrial fibrillation

Bhupesh Pathik, Jonathan M. Kalman, Tomos Walters, Pawel Kuklik, Jichao Zhao, Andrew Madry, Prash Sanders, Peter M. Kistler, Geoffrey Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Current phase mapping systems for atrial fibrillation create 2-dimensional (2D) maps. This process may affect the accurate detection of rotors. We developed a 3-dimensional (3D) phase mapping technique that uses the 3D locations of basket electrodes to project phase onto patient-specific left atrial 3D surface anatomy. Objective: We sought to determine whether rotors detected in 2D phase maps were present at the corresponding time segments and anatomical locations in 3D phase maps. Methods: One-minute left atrial atrial fibrillation recordings were obtained in 14 patients using the basket catheter and analyzed off-line. Using the same phase values, 2D and 3D phase maps were created. Analysis involved determining the dominant propagation patterns in 2D phase maps and evaluating the presence of rotors detected in 2D phase maps in the corresponding 3D phase maps. Results: Using 2D phase mapping, the dominant propagation pattern was single wavefront (36.6%) followed by focal activation (34.0%), disorganized activity (23.7%), rotors (3.3%), and multiple wavefronts (2.4%). Ten transient rotors were observed in 9 of 14 patients (64%). The mean rotor duration was 1.1 ± 0.7 seconds. None of the 10 rotors observed in 2D phase maps were seen at the corresponding time segments and anatomical locations in 3D phase maps; 4 of 10 corresponded with single wavefronts in 3D phase maps, 2 of 10 with 2 simultaneous wavefronts, 1 of 10 with disorganized activity, and in 3 of 10 there was no coverage by the basket catheter at the corresponding 3D anatomical location. Conclusion: Rotors detected in 2D phase maps were not observed in the corresponding 3D phase maps. These findings may have implications for current systems that use 2D phase mapping.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)182-192
Number of pages11
JournalHeart Rhythm
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2018


  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Basket catheter
  • Phase mapping
  • Rotors
  • Sinusoidal recomposition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

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