A family history of type 2 diabetes increases risk factors associated with overfeeding

D. Samocha-Bonet, L. V. Campbell, A. Viardot, J. Freund, C. S. Tam, J. R. Greenfield, Leonie Heilbronn

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Abstract

Aims/hypothesis: The purpose of the study was to test prospectively whether healthy individuals with a family history of type 2 diabetes are more susceptible to adverse metabolic effects during experimental overfeeding. Methods: We studied the effects of 3 and 28 days of overfeeding by 5,200 kJ/day in 41 sedentary individuals with and without a family history of type 2 diabetes (FH+ and FH- respectively). Measures included body weight, fat distribution (computed tomography) and insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp). Results: Body weight was increased compared with baseline at 3 and 28 days in both groups (p∈<∈0.001), FH+ individuals having gained significantly more weight than FH- individuals at 28 days (3. 4∈±∈1.6 vs 2.2∈±∈1.4 kg, p∈<∈0. 05). Fasting serum insulin and C-peptide were increased at 3 and 28 days compared with baseline in both groups, with greater increases in FH+ than in FH- for insulin at +3 and +28 days (p∈<∈0.01) and C-peptide at +28 days (p∈<∈0.05). Fasting glucose also increased at both time points, but without a significant group effect (p∈=∈0.1). Peripheral insulin sensitivity decreased in the whole cohort at +28 days (54.8∈±∈17.7 to 50.3∈±∈15.6 μmol min -1 [kg fat-free mass]-1, p∈=∈0.03), and insulin sensitivity by HOMA-IR decreased at both time points (p∈<∈0.001) and to a greater extent in FH+ than in FH- (p∈=∈0.008). Liver fat, subcutaneous and visceral fat increased similarly in the two groups (p∈<∈0.001). Conclusions: Overfeeding induced weight and fat gain, insulin resistance and hepatic fat deposition in healthy individuals. However, individuals with a family history of type 2 diabetes gained more weight and greater insulin resistance by HOMA-IR. The results of this study suggest that healthy individuals with a family history of type 2 diabetes are predisposed to adverse effects of overfeeding. Trial registration:: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00562393 Funding:: The study was funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), Australia (no. #427639).

LanguageEnglish
Pages1700-1708
Number of pages9
JournalDiabetologia
Volume53
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2010
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • First-degree relatives
  • Insulin resistance
  • Liver fat
  • Overfeeding
  • Type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Samocha-Bonet, D., Campbell, L. V., Viardot, A., Freund, J., Tam, C. S., Greenfield, J. R., & Heilbronn, L. (2010). A family history of type 2 diabetes increases risk factors associated with overfeeding. Diabetologia, 53(8), 1700-1708. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-010-1768-y